Τετάρτη, 8 Ιανουαρίου 2014

Ο μεγάλος Egon von Eickstedt για τις φυλές της υποσαχάριας Αφρικής

Απόσπασμα μεταφρασμένο από τα Γερμανικά από το πολύτιμο βιβλίο "Rassenkunde und Rassengeschichte der Menschheit". Πρέπει οπωσδήποτε να ανέβει στο διαδίκτυο, έστω στα Γερμανικά. Είναι ένας θησαυρός για τη φυλετική ανθρωπολογία. 
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Negrid Africa
 

The Europoid Contact Belt:

The whole northern broad extension of the African continent, reaching from Cape Verde in Senegambia to Cape Guardafui in Somalia, is contact area between the white and the black race. The interlocking could and had to assume at this more than 7000 km long distance very different forms. There are thus innumerable racial transitions and shadings, which let here the foreign element come out again, but are there stabilized in gautypes, tribal types or social stratification; which are elements and strains of quite recent character as well as closed and old connections of the development period of the races, thus proper zoological transition forms with harmonized somatic type.
The racial processes seem to be in the west in a more labile, in the east in a more stabile situation...

The Aethiopids: The term of the Aethiopids is only identical more or less over wider areas with the eastern Hamitic of the two Hamitic groups. One can imagine the bearers of the original Hamitic language in racial respects probably best as a somatic group between the predominantly Mediterranid mixture of the northern Africans and the Orientalid mixture of inner Arabia, thus as a body-form group which developed out of the circle of the southern Europid dolichocephal groups, especially the proto-Mediterranids. Another source of Europid influence to northeast Africa is...
in southern Arabia, from where since prehistorical times Orientalo-Armenid mixtures penetrated into the area of today's Abessinia. Finally, but not as most unimportant element, is the Negrid component of the Aethiopids to be named.
The somatic form totality of the Aethiopids is long since fully harmonized, and thus one can talk with full right of a "race", though this transition form has multiple roots, because of which one should be aware that it is so to speak a race of second order.

The Aethiopids are strong and slim, often even noticeably high figures with narrow heads and long faces, where the high, not seldom bent nose and the strong chin remind of the Europoid root of the transition form, the slightly thickened lips and the narrow-wavy soft hair of the Negrid root. The high figures of the Aethiopids show a broad rib cage with high, angular shoulders and a narrow waist. The hands are slim, the feet small. However the pelvis is only little broad. And the slim extremities show a strong, but only thin muscles structure. Arms and calfs are thin. All that are weakened Negrid features, also the relatively lower legs. But these characteristics don't appear disproportionalized, but fit harmonically in the racial picture. The female breasts are small, but full.
The Aethiopid head is long, very narrow and high. The forehead is also narrow, high and steep. The eyes are big and dark. The straight or convex bridge of the nose is quite high and the tip narrow, but not as slim and high as at Europids, and the basis is even quite broad with sharply contoured nostrils. Real prognathy can never be found. The mouth is big and shows quite full, bud not bulged lips. The ears are small.
The Aethiopids have full hair and fine, narrow-wavy curls. The skin shows a sort of reddish, red.brown undertone, in contrast to the grey undertone of the Negro skin. But there are numerous shadings of skin colours.
All in all there are, strongly generalizing, three one another succeding zones of types: the first one is one of a stronger Arab (predominantly Orientalid) influence in the countries which are turned towards Arabia (Bedsha, Abessinia, Easthorn-Somal). Galla and West-Somal with remained tribes of the highlands follow as the actual and most characteristical Aethiopids of southern Abessinia and its neighbouring areas, and finally there are the stronger Negroid Hima and Massai in Kenia and Uganda.

The Neo-Negrid Bow of the Grassland Negroes

Among the Negrids, the greater groupings in races let above all realize the antagonism between primitive older Palae-Negrids in or between the great jungle and the younger, more progressive elements in the open areas.
The belt of the grassland Negroes reaches as wide bow from west Africa over Wadai and Darfur to the upper Nile area and further to the far south, then even back to the southwest: it forms a great 3/4 circle around the central jungle. This wide extension of space has lead to a characteristical decomposition into types.
The body-form groups of the western half of middle Africa, the savannah and thornbush steppe between the Guinean coast jungles at the south and the Sahelian semi-desert (of Europoid influence) at the north can be summarized on the whole as Sudanids; they end with the upper Nile area. A new, independent specialization form appears here, which dominates in the papyrus swamps of the Gazelle river and the upper Nile and which already flooded downwards to the lake area: the Nilotids. They form so to speak the hinge point in the bow of spreading of the grassland Negroes. Downwards to the south then the landscape character of the thornbush steppe appears first, but turns over soon to the deciduous bush savannah and the thin, foliage throwing dry woods of middle south Africa. This enormous savannah area is the direct lengthening of the most important African streamline of the Hominids, the Ethiopian. The contact has lead here to essential different types than in the Sudan area, to types which cannot deny in spite of all deep dark "blackness" of the skin a clearly Europoid general shape of the features: the Bantuids (Kafrids).

The Nilotids: The strange landscape of the upper Nile area, which has its character through swamps and watercourses, has also its own, not less strange type of man: the Nilotids. The Nilotids are gaunt and long-legged, they reach not seldom heights of 2 meters. An other noticeable characteristic is the deep darkness of their skin. There is a strange harmony between landscape, man and animal here with the clear fact of an independent human specialization form. The Nilotids show own characteristics of the variety as well as features of neighbouring somatic groups. The type of the Nilotids shows partly elegant, progressive-Europoid form developments, but on the other side coarse, plump Negroid strains. A quite long face with a nose which has an already narrow, heightened root and also a narrow, strong straight bridge. The eyes are close together. The skull is quite long, the brain capsule is built narrow and gracile and has a long parting line and a projecting back of the head. Nothing is short and plump as it is at the woodland Negro. Also are the bulges above the eyes mostly only little marked. But the nostrils are inflated [gebläht] in Negroid way, though the broadness of primitive vutton noses or Sudanid funnel noses is not reached. Also can the lips be called only toned down Negrid and don't reach the extreme bulging of Sudanid lips. The chin is strong, the ears are small. There is no prognathy.

So there are on the one side certain tendencies to a Europoid face, but minor than at the Aethiopids. But on the other side the whole impression is quite Negro-like, because - besides of the skin colour - Nilotids often show, irrespective of the named Europoid single characteristics, angular coarse facial bones at men and a soft, full rounding of features at women. Especially the outline and the middle region of the face takes part here.
Besides of the great height does the body show a great length of the extremities, and especially the great length of the forearms can be seen as primitive and Negrid characteristic. The women have, similar to the Aethiopids, half-ball breast with very small nipples and never show the hanging or goat's udder-like bud breat of so many actual Negrids. But the Nilotids' pelvis and the thin, almost calf-less lower legs and the quite short and especially flat feet are totally Negrid. In respect to the body, all in all the Negrid character predominates.
Very clear is this also in the colour of the skin and the hair texture. Did the harmonization of the whole form took in face and figure still many Europoid ways, can be here found the very definite connection to the Negrids. The skin is deep brown-black, the Nilotids are probably the darkest Negroes of all.

The closed connection of Negrid integumental characteristics with many Europoid elements shows the strength of the harmonization in a multiple-rooted variety of Hominids. The Nilotids are a good example of a body form group which went into being through splitting of characteristics and bastardization on the one side and selective harmonization on the other side. They are not at all disharmonical, but like of one piece. We can suppose that the today's special form of the Nilotids goes back to one proto-Sudanid and one proto-Aethiopid origin, thus to a very old racial contact which was followed by long-term, relative isolation. Still a question is of course the extraordinary high groth: luxuration or the integration of a third, old Europoid element, from oldest specialization forms of proto-Aethiopid strata?
We see, that with the first grassland Negro form we entered an own specialization belt, but still did not leave the contact zone of Europids and Negrids.

The Bantuids (Kafrids): The Bantuids are not in the same way a closed somatic form circle like other African races. They stream into the other African types in imperceptibly shaded form chains and broad mixing zones; they are spreaded over very wide areas and disturbed in their somatic building through numerous migrations.
But it is clear that the great mass of the Bantu peoples outside of the jungle show a racial picture different from the other body-form groups of the Negrids. It maybe are less the things in common among themselves than more the differences to others which lead to the seperation as an independent group. The Bantuids are, similar to the Palae-Mongolids and Sibirids, a collective type with numerous local races and half-harmonized gautypes and besides also with racial shiftings. Also crisscross migrations had an effect against the fixing of somatic types.
In the north, in east Africa, the rests of the crushed zone of the Palae-Negrids reach far into the core areas of the Bantuids. These woodland Negroes are the passive element which participates at the forming of the Bantuid type. But through this zone Europoid influenced race groups advanced since oldest days from the north again and again; they are the active element at the forming of the new type.
It is at the last an area of very old race contacts with the result of a more or less balanced middle type (in which here the Palae-Negrid relicts of past race periods predominate, there the more active elements of younger periods), especially in east Africa, while in south Africa younger and older race mixtures (of Aethiopid waves and sprenkles of Australiform and Khoisanid elements) with the Bantuid substratum, the actual Negrid basis, are noticeable which partly cover up the picture.
Thus the Bantuids all in all are divided into a coarser, older and more Negrid wing in the north and a younger, more Europoid and finer wing in the south; the latter area became more the advance zone of more active, younger elements.

In many important characteristics the Bantuids stand between Nilotids and Palae-Negrids, but don't reach the high level of specialization of the Sudanids. They have a smaller height and shorter extremities and are lighter than the Nilotids, they also have a shorter nose and a lower face. But they are not as plump and stocky, with such a broad nose and as primitive as the Palae-Negrids. All Negrid characteristics can be found at the building of the body, especially at the building of pelvis, breast and back. The men have broad shoulders, are robust and have strong muscles, not the thin extremities of the Nilotids. Palae-Negrid blood shows itself through minor dolichocephaly and smaller height, through more coarseness of the features and plumper body structure. On the other side, Aethiopid strains lead to higher growth, longer face, sharper features and intensive growth of the beard.
The Bantuid head is long and high, has a well-vaulted parting line, the back of the head is moderately projecting. Men have a tendency to the square form of the face, women tend to chubby-oval or round forms (partly through the cheekbones which project quite far to the sides and to the front). The chin is weaker than that of the Nilotids, but receding chins can be found usually only among women, and not as the rule. The eyeslit is quite small.
The only little relief energy of the face is succeeded by the small, short and flat nose. The nostrils are strongly inflated, the tip is rounded, but not round. The lips of the big mouth show moderate bulging, real prognathy appears only moderately.
The body shows not seldom short legs and - especially among women - a very long trunk. Both sexes show enormous bending of the lumbar vertebra and at the same a vaulted, hanging stomach, in contrary to the slim, straight figures of the Nilotids and Aethiopids. Bantuid characteristics are furthermore hanging breasts, thin calfs and flat feet - thus quite Negrid characteristics.
The skin colour shows great variability, but especially because of younger mixtures. Basic Bantuid element is a moderately deep dark-brown.
Europoid strain can be found above all especially among the Zulu and the Hereró.

The Sudanids: In the (from north to south) narrow, but (from east to west) wide landstripe from Senegambia to Kordofan, a common and very characteristical type differentiates itself out of the mosaique of peoples and social groups. Within the Negrids this type shows the strongest marking of a couple of characteristics which are typical for the black race. This high-specialized type shows at its northern margin Europoid contact groups and especially superstrata. To the south there are the more substrata respectively compact exclaves of an older and less specialized type of the black race, the more one comes to the coast and the great rain-forest belt: this can be traced back to the influence of the Palae-Negrids. This picture of zonal triple division and triple stratification appears in the whole western Sudanid area. In the central and east the social stratification is even rather stronger, and at the same time are the differences of types between the participating races stronger. But at the same time an extraordinarily far-reaching crushing of the body-form groups and pushing them mixed up occured. Thus the Sudanid living space is divided into two part areas: an eastern with a far-reaching crushing of types [Typenzertrümmerung] and troubled mosaique of peoples and a western with a clear layering of types and a triple racial structure.

The Sudanid race is characterized through very high growth, robust body structure, extremely broad and inflated noses and extremely Negrid bulge lips, through prognathy amd very dark skin. The known dolichocephaly of all Negro races of the grassland belt is to be found, but the Sudanids differ from the other races in their higher degree of Negrid specialization. They are within the Negrids that what within the Europids the Nordics and within the Mongolids the East-Tungids are: the somatic climax of a race, the most Negrid of all Negrid forms. Race contact is given also among them, but for the forming of the new type, if at all, it doesn't contribute far as much as at the Nilotids and Bantuids. The Sudanid type has all in all many extreme and some primitive and theromorph features [theromorph primitivity = the general development of a race remained in characteristics on a more primitive level of Hominid evolution].

The Sudanid skull capsule is long, narrow, high vaulted, with a strongly projecting back of the head. The cephalic index is between 73 and 77. The forehead is steep and narrow, often even very narrow, and narrows in the lateral contoures to the top. The face is big and quite long. The contoures come together downwards, so that the facial outline (including the forehead) appears not seldom rhombic, namely to the degree as the cheekbones, which are (more than at other Negrids) built also out to the front strongly, project more or less to the sides. The root of the nose is flat, striking is often the height of the upper eyefold, the eye is wet-shing and very dark.
The bridge of the nose is bulky, quite low and broad, in profile usually straight, with a rounded tip. The nostrils are characterized by their special size, broadness and inflatedness, with often pronounced diagonal-oval forms. The inflated nostrils are mostly quite distinguished from the bridge, but they often pass over to it (funnel nose). Prognathy is always to be found, accompanied by an extraordinary thickness of the soft parts of the mouth area. The mouth itself is quite big, while the ear is small and gracile. The chin is soft, sometimes even receding.
The building of the body is high, with a mighty thorax, broad shoulders and a strong, but proportionalized muscular system. The neck is slim and strong, not low as at the Palae-Negrids. The breasts are often conical, but mostly hanging. The extremities appear from a European point of view "well proportionalized", with the exception of the pelvises of the women which are a little narrow and the quite long forearms and lower legs. Primitive and theromorph characteristics can be found at the building of the body even less than at the facial features.
The skin colour is dark, often even quite dark brown-black. The skin itself is bulging, dry and velvety.

The Old Races of the Central Jungle Region

The body-form groups of Africa which we regarded until now were more or less result of biodynamic processes, and they represent younger stages of constantly active forming processes within mankind. As most stabilized appear the Nilotids, as most disturbed the Bantuids (Kafrids), as most specialized the Sudanids. As passive and conservative element did the Palae-Negrids participate with a retarding effect at the forming of the younger and more specialized types. The Palae-Negrids are at the northern Sudanid as well as at the eastern Bantuid wing of the great Negrid contact bow under constant pressure of the more active races; their recent homeland is retreat area.
They share their retreat area with a second, very primitive form: the African Pygmids. They are seen often as an even older stratum, as a relict of even older differenciation processes of mankind. In their most extreme margin position as so to speak preserved forming relict they are special form, not basic form, a side branch and variant which can be found with this special character only in the Negrid race circle.

The Palae-Negrids: The central African jungle is divided into two linguistic areas: a nothern Sudan-speaking and a southern Bantu-speaking area, and the northern Palae-Negrids speak Sudan, the southern Bantu languages.
The jungle Negro is only medium high and mostly only mesocephal or even brachycephal. With his relatively longer trunk and his short extremities, his plump and stocky building, his bulky funnel nose and the disharmonical body forms he appears as great contrast to the Nilotids. He also does not show the specialization of the Sudanids: the lips are less thick, the nose is or appears less broad and modelled through, the skin colour is lighter. Coarse and prognath is the men's face, flat, with a button nose and primitive that of the women. Just as the Palae-Mongolids, there is not yet taken advantage of the possibilities of development that are in the race. An old form.
As greater somatic subgroups there are a wide-spreaded Congolesian and a less numerous Guinesian type; the Congolesian subrace seems more characteristical for the Palae-Negrids. The skull shows here plump forms and appears thick and big. The back is less vaulted, the forehead is steep and narrow. The facial outline is angular and more or less rectangular. The face is quite low. Very flat and broad is the root of the nose. The eye is only little big and quite dark. The cheekbones are a bit projecting and among women well padded. The bridge of the nose is low and straight, the tip blunt. The nostrils are only little distinguished, but quite broad, so that the face appears plump and flown apart. The mouth is very big, but bulging and prognathy are slighter than among the Sudanids. The ear is small.
Among women not only the bridge of the nose, but the nose itself is saddled in and strongly turned to the top, so that it only is a broad and dull, button-like structure. This passes into a snout-like lip area which is pushed strongly forward to the front, from which then tub-like flat the chin region recedes again.

At the Guinean subrace of the Palae-Negrids as the western outskirts of the Congolesian mass, the coarse and primitive characteristics appear weakened and especially the skull less plump and also less short.
In spite of the strong muscular structure of the body, the impression of the Palae-Negrids' body is not an impression of strength, but of plumpness: relatively less height, short neck, angular shoulders and the clumsy trunk. Hands and feet are small. The women's breasts are limp and hanging, the cone form appears only sometimes and in very young years. The lumbar vertebra is strongly bent, women show on the one side a voluminous bottom and on the other side a strongly frontal vaulted stomach.
The skin is dark brown, but also quite lighter shades appear.
Grassland Negroes were partly pressed into the jungle and mixed partly with Palae-Negrids, especially in the east and south. On the other side numerous remnants of Palae-Negrid peoples remained in retreat areas in the grassland, or Palae-Negrids were even uprooted and driven into the grasslands. But all in all, dissolved splinters and remained rest groups are rather exceptions, while the actual mass of the Palae-Negrids, clearing peasants of the edges of the African forest, was pressed deeper and deeper into the jungle, until the densest thickets of the giant preventing wood absorbed them. Their living areas are relatively small clearings and circles, spreaded like islands in the endless ocean of the jungle, and their number is thus, compared with other African forms, only little.
The Congolesian subrace of the Palae-Negrids is often brought into a narrow relationship with the Pygmids and seen as a contact race to these, but it is controversial if this applies for the racial status of the Palae-Negrids, while more or less strong Palae-Negrid-Pygmid mixtures happened.

The African Pygmids (Bambutids):

The biological position of the Pygmids lets at least recognize a connection to the Negrid race circle, so that they can be called a variant within the Negrid race. The tropical form of the Hominids, the Negrids, shows thus a stronger variability in groups of height than other races.
The common bodily characteristics of the Pygmid collective form are: dwarf growth, curly hair, deep dark skin, also strong lumbar bend, moderately thick lips and a number of primitive (infantile) characteristics, such as steep forehead, little marked chin, round nose tips and inflated nostrils.
The mostly moderately short head of the African Pygmids (Bambutids) is in relation to the small body quite big and appears bulky this way. Also is shortness of legs, generally biologically spoken, a morphological characteristic of forest forms. A steep, low forehead and quite broad lower jaw angle give also a heavy and plump looking to the low Bambutid face, which is emphasized through the most determinant formula element of the human body, through the nose. The nose of the African Pygmids is the biggest and coarsest of the whole circle of the Hominids. The broadness of the Bambutid nose is reached by no other race; and also is its height enormous, which is a difference to the higher-grown Negrids. The nose tip however is rounded.
Totally un-Negrid are also the lips. Not even does stronger prognathy appear. The face is generally low and runded, the cheekbones are slightly projecting. The lower face is especially strong and the chin strongly receding. The immensely small (the height can sink among adult men down to 1.20 meters, and the group average never is higher than 1.50 meters), bud splendid muscular body is characterized through an extremely long trunk and very short legs. It is the most extreme contrast to the Nilotids. Short and low is also the Bambutid neck, broad and plump the trunk and angular (because of the muscles) the shoulders.
Thus the African Pygmids have some characteristics in common with their higher-grown neighbour forms, other characteristics connect with those of Asian Pygmids, and again others are independent forms and form complexes.

Και όπως σωστά διαπιστώνει ο Eickstedt:

"It is worth marking that we cannot establish a single unequivocally Negrid character" Eickstedt

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